Engineering industry along with their products variety are the bases for strengthening the economy of a country. Designing of any product includes two distinct functions, namely,
i) product design, and
ii) process design.

The product design involves the development of specifications for a product that become functionally sound, have a good appearance and provide satisfactory performance for an adequate life span.
The process design includes developing the method of product manufacture so that the same can be produced at reasonably low cost.

A product is said reliable, if it functions correctly when required during its designed life.

Design Techniques

1. Problem Identification – This can result only from a judicious problem definition.

2. Data Collection – This is the research phase of product design. Once the problem has been defined and given focus, pertinent data must be gathered, information retrieved, benchmarks examined, market assessments made and cost analyses undertaken.

3. Hypothesis – This activity is the concept-development stage, where intuition and technical expertise merge together to produce a range of possible solutions for a problem.

4. Experimentation – Possible solution are refined and prototypes are built. It has the opportunity to examine the various problem solution critically and detect and correct errors before the article is put into production.

5. Final Solution – The result of the previous four phases of design process is the ultimate problem solution. At this stage, considerably attention must be paid to these refinements needed to satisfy special methods of manufacture in order to simplify the product.

 

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Principles of Modern Design

1. Product materials should be used judiciously, taking full advantage of their unique attributes.

2. Product should be functional, useful and expressive.

3. Products should incorporate latest advancements in materials science, computer application and process technology.

4. Products should be derived from new combinations.

 

Design By Evolution

Things got changed gradually with the passage of time and each change was made to overcome some difficulty faced by the user or to add some new features to increase its usefulness. Bicycles, calculators, computing devices, steam locomotives, etc all passed through a process of evolution in which designers tried a series of concept one after another.

The slow process of evolution would result in wastage because of larger scale of production. Because of competitive requirements, it is essential to anticipate and keep pace with future requirements and changes. A particular requirement cannot be met by a slow evolution of the existing products.

 

Alter-Techniques and Design Review

Designs are generally reviewed from the following points of view

i) Performance

ii) Manufacture ability / Productivity

iii) Maintainability

Alter-techniques are necessary to make the changes in design methods after the product has fully been developed, tested and commercialized. Basically there should be at least three design review stages in the design process and these are given hereunder.

– The feasibility stage is the first and foremost stage, when all existing knowledge of cusomer requirements are compared with the feasible methods of satisfying the requirements.

– Then follow intermediate reviews, of which there may be several, in which the results of feasibility studies, prototype tests, information, performance claims, design life and reliability data are evaluated.

– The final review examines whether the completed products conforms sufficiently close to the customer’s requirements.

The proposal of alter-technique procedure must provide the following information.

{} Reasons for alterations.
{} All engineering / concerned sections.{} Be informed about the changes or the alterations.
{} Review, classify and recommend the changed design and use proper specifications.

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